3 -ed


-ed pp. suffix of weak verbs, from O.E. -ed, -ad, -od (leveled to -ed in M.E.), from P.Gmc. *-do- (Cf. O.H.G. -ta, Ger. -t, O.N. -þa, Goth. -da, -þs), from PIE *-to- (Cf. Skt. -tah, Gk. -tos, L. -tus). Originally fully pronounced, as still in beloved (which, with blessed, accursed, and a few others retains the full pronunciation through liturgical readings). In 16c.-18c. often written -t when so pronounced (usually after a consonant or short vowel), and still so where a long vowel in the stem is short in the pp. (crept, slept, etc.). In some older words both forms exist, with different shades of meaning, e.g. gilded/gilt, burned/burnt.

Etymology dictionary. 2014.

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